Oathkeepers – How to Use Medicinal Herbs


How to Use Medicinal Herbs

So you’ve decided you want to incorporate herbal remedies into your health regimen. Congratulations! You’re embarking on a journey that will help your body heal itself from the inside out in a way that is much more natural, safe and gentle than conventional medicine.

It’s also a journey that can be a little confusing. There are many different types of herbal remedies out there. Sometimes you will find the same herb sold in many different preparations. What do all those different terms mean? Here’s a rundown of some of the most common ways medicinal herbs are sold and used.

Tablets and Capsules: Like conventional drugs, herbs are often packaged and sold in tablet and capsule form. Tablets involve compressing an herb into a round or cylindrical shape, usually with some sort of binder, colorant, flavorings and coating that prevents them from breaking down in the body too quickly. Capsules are usually made of gelatin and the herb is placed inside the shell. Other ingredients can also be mixed in to make the herb taste better or to prevent it from being digested too quickly. Vegetarians can find capsules made of vegetable cellulose, but check the label to make sure you know you’re not getting any animal products.

Extracts: Herbal extracts may be sold as tablets, capsules orliquid herbal extracts; the herbs contained in an extract are far more concentrated than those in a standard pill. Extracts are made by soaking the herbs in alcohol or water (or a combination) and filtering and drying the herb at low heat. Much like culinary herbs become stronger when dried, herbal extracts are highly concentrated remedies, allowing you to take many fewer pills to get a large dose. Continue reading Oathkeepers – How to Use Medicinal Herbs

For Sale – Declan, a Nubian Purebred Registered Buck

img_20160919_112535439 img_20160919_112546301We are rearranging our herd again and adding new bloodlines so our beloved Declan gets to find a new herd of gorgeous girls to breed with.

He is a 1-1/2 year old, proven and registered purebred moonspotted Nubian Buck. He is from a closed clean herd and has given us many, many beautiful babies last season and will again this season. (several of our girls have been bred with him this season already).

He does throw spotted babies and we are keeping both a male and a female off of him for our own herd.

We raise Nubian goats, kunekune pigs, yorkshire meat pigs, chickens, ducks, geese, heritage breed turkeys, coturnix quail and rabbits. Visit our homepage at www.krisandlarry.com.

How To Make Apple Cider Vinegar

We love making our own Apple Cider Vinegar. Check out this article that I found with step by step!!! <3 Kris 


Making Apple Cider Vinegar From Scraps

Like apple juice, the best apple cider vinegars are organic, unfiltered and raw (unpasteurized). Depending on where you live it may be hard to find really good apple cider vinegar.

Fortunately, it’s easy and very inexpensive to make. It just takes some time, naturally, to ferment. This varies depending on which of the two methods below that you choose to use.

This article will show you how to make apple cider vinegar using two different methods. The first method uses the scraps – cores and apple peels. The second method uses whole apples. 

Method One – Make Apple Cider Vinegar From Scraps

This method uses scraps, like the peels and cores. I like this method because I get to eat my apples and make vinegar too. It’s also faster, taking around two months to complete the process.

You’ll need:
a large bowl or wide-mouth jar
apple scraps, the cores and peels from organic apples
a piece of cheesecloth for covering the jar to keep out flies and debris

Leave the scraps to air. They’ll turn brown, which is exactly what you want. Add the apple scraps to the jar and top it up with water.

You can continue to add scraps for a few more days if you want. If you’re going to do this though, be sure don’t top the jar right up, leave some room for the new scraps.

Cover with the cheesecloth and put it in a warm, dark place. A water cylinder cupboard is perfect.

You’ll notice the contents of the jar starts to thicken after a few days and a grayish scum forms on top. When this happens, stop adding scraps and leave the jar for a month or so to ferment.

After about a month you can start taste-testing it. When it’s just strong enough for you, strain out the apple scraps and bottle the vinegar.

It’s ok if your vinegar is cloudy, there will be some sediment from the apples and what’s known as “the mother”. It’s all good. If you don’t like the cloudiness though, straining it through a paper coffee filter will remove most of the sediment.

Method Two – Make Apple Cider Vinegar From Whole Apples

This method uses whole, organic apples and takes about 7 months to ferment into vinegar.

You’ll need:
10 Whole organically-grown apples
a glass bowl, and later a larger glass bowl
a piece of cheesecloth to cover the bowls

Wash the apples and cut into quarters. You can optionally core and peel them. If you do the scraps can be used to make apple cider vinegar by method one, above.

Let the apples air and turn brown. Then put them into the smaller bowl and cover with water.

Cover the bowl with the cheesecloth and leave in a warm, dark place for 6 months. Again, a hot water cupboard is ideal.

After the 6 months is up, you’ll notice a grayish scum on the surface of the liquid. This is normal. Strain the liquid through a coffee filter into the larger bowl, and leave it for another 4-6 weeks, covered with the cheesecloth.

And there you have it, your own homemade apple cider vinegar

How to use Apple Cider Vinegar

There are lots of ways to use apple cider vinegar. It can be used diluted with water as a hair rinse (don’t worry – the smell disappears quickly), you can also mix with water or fruit juice and drink it.



Top 23 Uses For Apple Cider Vinegar Backed By Science


Apple Cider Vinegar  has a plethora of useful and medicinal properties. There have been resources written on all the amazing benefits that Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) has regarding multiple physical ailments as well as cleaning and DIY purposes.
ACV is a cheap and effective multi-purpose cleaner, you can add it to your water, tea and salad dressings for a refreshing zing and capitalize on the multiple health benefits you’ll be receiving.

Why All The Fuss Over Apple Cider Vinegar?

The word vinegar translates to vin aigre, is french for “sour wine”. The medicinal uses of vinegar date way back to when it was discovered in 5000 BC by a courtier in Babylonia.

MD’s during the 18th century used it as a multi purpose treatment for ailments like dropsy, stomach ache and even for managing diabetes (1).

Columbus had barrels of apple cider vinegar on his ships to prevent scurvy. Apple cider vinegar was used during the civil war to disinfect wounds and Japanese Samurais drank it for strength and power.

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Hippocrates used vinegar to treat seventeen different conditions (2) ranging from ulcers to fractures.

Apple Cider Vinegar is loaded with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids, its various enzymes help with digestion and 1 Tbs equals is just 3 calories.


1. Cleaning 

ACV combined with 2 parts water makes an effective natural disinfectant solution for all surfaces (3).

It’s amazingly affordable compared to commercial natural cleaning products and the smell is really pleasant. You could add a few drops of thieves oil and have a great antibacterial spray for countertops, bathroom, kitchen and carpet deodorizer.


2. Hair rinse

There’s a new hair craze on the rise and it relies on the simple method of using baking soda as a shampoo and ACV as a conditioning hair rinse.

Instead of spending loads on junk free shampoos and conditioners, this “no poo” (short for shampoo, not the other stuff) method of hair care works really well and makes your hair super soft.

Thanks to the pH balancing effects that ACV has, anecdotal reports claim it can add shine, softness and break down build up from other hair products.


3. Dandruff and Thinning Hair 

The high acidity and powerful enzyme in ACV kill the bacteria responsible for dandruff and hair loss, bottle bacilli, and stimulates our hair natural oils to secrete more effectively and moisturize our scalps better.

Saturate the scalp with ACV and let it sit for a few hours. Use the same treatment for thinning hair and itchy scalp (4).

Continue reading How To Make Apple Cider Vinegar

11 Reasons You Should Go Out Foraging For Juniper Berries

I came across this AWESOME article on Juniper Berries… And I had to share. http://www.naturallivingideas.com/juniper-berries/ 
October 4, 2016 by Sierra Bright

The flavorful berries of junipers are associated with gin, but they have a host of other medicinal and culinary uses. Junipers are conifers, which means they bear cones, rather than berries. So, botanically speaking, juniper berries are not berries, but small female cones with tiny scales that have become fused and fleshy. There are over 50 species of junipers, and all of them bear berries, mostly bluish black with a powdery bloom on them, but some have reddish-orange berries.

You can quickly source dried juniper berries, but they are no match for freshly gathered berries. Look out for accessible juniper trees to get your seasonal supply of berries. Some have needle-like leaves while others have scale leaves that are flush with the stems. Since junipers are mostly dioecious, you need to find female trees and bushes. It’s not hard, though. Since the berries usually take a year or more to mature, the female plants would otherwise have berries at some stage of development throughout the year.

Juniper berries have subtle differences in flavor at different stages of growth. The green berries have a distinctly piney flavor, but they acquire a lemony hint as they mature. The green berries of the common juniper (Juniperus communis) are used for gin flavoring, but many other species such as J. drupacea, J. deppeana, J. oxycedrus and J. California, also produce flavorful berries. Eastern red cedar is also a juniper species (J. virginiana), but its berries are not as pungent as those of J. communis.

Caution: Some species of junipers contain a toxic resin, so it’s IMPORTANT to learn which ones are okay to consume and use. A simple test is biting into a tiny part of a ripe berry. Apart from the flavor, it can be nearly tasteless or mealy, or may be juicy and slightly sweet. If it tastes bitter, spit it out immediately; you don’t want to take a risk with it.

Here are some things you can do with these berries:

1. Use as a digestive aid Juniper berries can improve digestion, just as many other culinary spices do. They increase glandular function, especially the secretion of bile and digestive juices. You can make a tincture or tea from fresh berries or dried ones.

The tea is made by steeping the berries in boiling water for 15-20 minutes. Crush the berries slightly just before adding them to the water. This helps release the bioactive compounds as well as the flavor.

2. Eliminate gas and bloating Stomach pain and discomfort due to gas accumulation is a common complaint, especially after heavy meals. Gas shouldn’t bother you if you have some juniper syrup handy. Have a tablespoon of the syrup after a heavy meal or whenever you feel bloated.

To make the syrup, first, prepare an infusion of juniper berries. Crush 1 oz. berries and add to one cup hot boiled water in a mason jar. Screw the lid on and keep in a warm, dark place for a week, giving the bottle a good shake every day. After a week, mix in 1 cup sugar until it dissolves completely. Strain it into a saucepan and bring to a boil. Pour into a glass jar and store in the refrigerator.

3. Reduce inflammation Juniper berries are anti-inflammatory. It is particularly useful in reducing arthritic pain and swelling. Chronic, generalized inflammation is one of the leading causes of many diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, IBS, etc. Taking a daily dose of 10 drops of juniper tincture once or twice a day may help bring down inflammation and promote good health in general.

To make the tincture, steep crushed juniper berries in alcohol. Try to obtain good quality alcohol, such as Everclear, or use 80-proof vodka or brandy. Use ¾ oz. berries to a cup of alcohol in a glass jar. Keep in a dark place for 4-6 weeks, shaking it once or twice a day. Filter out the clear liquid and store in small bottles.

4. Reduce water retention Water retention in the body makes you feel heavy and lethargic, besides giving you puffy eyes and face. Juniper berries can help reduce water retention by prompting the kidneys to work harder to flush out excess water. This action may also help bring down hypertension. Use a tincture or herbal tea made with juniper berries once or twice a day.

5. Eliminate kidney and gallbladder stones Juniper berries have excellent diuretic action, which helps increase the quantity of urine produced. On the one hand, greater dilution of urine flushes out toxins and mineral salts and prevents the formation of kidney stones. On the other, the extra urine production facilitates the removal of existing stones. Increased bile production and drainage have a similar effect on gall bladder stones.

6. Treat urinary tract infections The antibacterial property of juniper berries combined with the diuretic effect makes it excellent for combating urinary tract infections. The recurring nature of UTI usually make repetitive courses of antibiotics necessary, but this herbal treatment offers an alternative.

7. Relieve congestion Chest congestion due to a cold can be treated with juniper berries. A warm tea made from fresh green berries or 5-10 drops of a tincture in a glass of warm water can be used at bedtime to relieve congestion. It is good for asthmatics also. If you want to avoid alcohol use in children, the juniper berries can be infused in high-quality glycerin.

8. Use as antiseptic Juniper berry tincture can be used as an antiseptic solution to prevent infections setting in cuts and wounds. Wash the wound with diluted tincture or dab it on. It can be used as an antiseptic face wash to reduce acne inflammation and prevent infections too.

9. Flavor meat dishes Juniper berries impart a peppery taste and flavor to dishes, which goes very well with meat preparations. In fact, dried berries were commonly used in place of black pepper when the latter was very expensive. Ripe berries are used in cooking and flavoring because they don’t have much of the turpentine-like taste of the green berries.

10. Use in pickles and soups The peppery flavor of juniper berries goes very well with pickled vegetables and soups. It is, in fact, a popular ingredient of sauerkraut. You can either use fresh berries or dried ones, but crushing them with a pestle or mortar helps release the flavors. Since dry berries have a milder flavor, you need to use more.

11. Make a refreshing drink A fermented Bosnian drink called Smerka can be made from juniper berries and plain water. Add 1 cup berries to 2 quarts of water and allow to ferment for a week or more. The drink is ready when all the berries sink to the bottom. Strain the liquid and drink it lightly sweetened with raw honey if you like.

Bonus: Of course juniper berries are most famous for making gin. Check out this recipe over at Seriouseats.com to find out how to do that.

Caution: Juniper berries should be used in moderation since the active compounds in them stimulate the kidneys. They should be avoided during pregnancy as they may cause strong uterine contractions.


Local Plants in Yavapai County – Oathkeepers Preparedness class – October 8, 2016

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Every time you walk outside, take in nature around you. Many plants that grow in your back yard and neighborhood are edible. (There are many however that are poisonous, so please do your research.)

Stepping outside my own house, I can spot so many different plants that are used as food or as medicinal purposes that grow wild here in Yavapai County.  I have fields full of purslane, plantain, dandelions and other amazing plants.

In the past weeks, we have talked about medicinal herbs that you can purchase and plant, so now we are going to hit upon local grown plants that you can step outside and find in Yavapai County. You can also pick up seeds for these local plants online. I have a set of seeds that I purchased as backups in case my wild sets don’t comes back up.  

I am by no means a Master Gardener, but rather someone who takes being prepared very seriously. With the ease of using the Internet, I have been able to research and locate many of the local plants that are GREAT to have in your back yard. I have also been able to discover ones that are NOT so good for my kids and animals such as false red yucca and locoweed.

Plants do not only have to be in big fields or open area, but can be planted in pots in your back yard.

I tend to pick wild dandelion flowers when I am out and about too…. But I make sure that I don’t pick from areas that I know have a ton of car traffic or where they spray pesticides. My back yard is the best place to find the perfect ones.

 “The health benefits of dandelion include relief from liver disorders, diabetes, urinary disorders, acne, jaundice, cancer and anemia. It also helps in maintaining bone health, skin care and is a benefit to weight loss programs. These and other health benefits are currently being studied for complete validation by a number of international institutions.” – https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-and-spices/health-benefits-of-dandelion.html

Purslane: The Everyday Edible “Weed” With Extraordinary Health Benefits


January 6, 2016 by Sierra Bright

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

“A nutritional powerhouse, Purslane contains more omega-3 fatty acids than any other leafy vegetable. It’s rich in vitamins A, C, E as well as magnesium, calcium, potassium and iron. In traditional Chinese medicine, purslane leaves are used for insect bites and bee stings, sores, diarrhea and hemorrhoids.

With a somewhat sour and salty flavor, it’s an acquired taste, but works great in soups and stews. Try breading and frying the leaves for a tempura style side dish.

Even though this weed happily grows in sidewalk cracks, try looking for some that’s a little less trampled – you’ll probably find some in your garden.”   http://www.naturallivingideas.com/18-edible-backyard-weeds-you-should-stop-killing-start-eating/

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea, P. sativa) is known as an annoying weed to many but it reality it is a plant loaded with nutritional value and is actually a “superweed.”  Out of all of the weeds that may spring up in your yard, this one is certainly worth keeping around.

Strangely enough, this weed that seems to pop up all over the place such as in between sidewalk cracks and in fields and lawns is classified by the United States Department of Agriculture as a noxious weed. despite its alluring list of redeeming qualities.

According to reports, purslane, a member of the portulacaceae family, was one of Gandhi’s favorite foods and was also eaten by Thoreau while he lived at Walden Pond.

The benefits of this edible weed did not escape early Americans such as Martha Washington who had a recipe for pickled “pursland” in the Booke of Cookery and Booke of Sweetmeats. This was a collection of hand-written recipes that she received as a wedding gift.

Distribution, Description and Varieties

Purslane is an annual plant  that is native to Persia, Africa and India. It grows from late spring until early fall.  It was brought to Europe in the 8th century by Arabs who used it as a salad herb. From Europe, the plant spread into the United States as well as Central and South America. This low growing herb  prefers to grow in vacant areas where the soil is either slightly damp or dry.

The  tear-shaped leaves of this fleshy succulent resemble those of a jade plant and it has a slightly reddish colored stem. Yellow flowers appear in the morning and often close by the heat of the day. After flowering, the plant leaves behind small dark-colored seeds.

There are actually 3 different varieties of purslane, green, golden and large-leaved. All have a similar nutritional profile.

If you don’t already have this weed popping up in your yard or garden, you can generally find it at any farmer’s market.

Taste, Texture and Use

Many describe the taste of purslane as slightly sour but also pleasantly sweet. Because it is a succulent, its leaves are very crisp making it a great addition to salads. However, its use does not stop here, you can also enjoy purslane in stir fry dishes, soups, pickles, rice, potato dishes  and even casseroles.

Nutritional Profile

Purslane has a very impressive nutritional profile which includes many substances of  varied therapeutic value:

  • rich source of potassium ( 494 mg/100g)
  • rich source of magnesium ( 68mg/100g)
  • contains calcium ( 65mg/100g)
  • contains vitamins C, A and E
  • containsalpha linolenic acid ( ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid ( LNA)
  • contains alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid

Omega-3 fatty Acids

Purslane is one of the richest sources of omega-3 fatty acids found in any green plant and even higher than some types of fish. Omega 3 fatty acids have been proven to decrease the thickness of the blood making them beneficial in the treatment of vascular conditions.  In addition, a diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids has been found to help with the following conditions:

Depression: Research has indicated that depression rates were low in areas where people consumed a diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids.

Bipolar disease: There is a strong indication that omega 3 fatty acids help with bipolar disease.

ADHD: Omega 3’s have been found to help children with ADHD. Sneak some purslane into your children’s smoothies to help with cognitive function and focus.

Dry Eye Syndrome: Omega 3 fatty acids may help with dry eye syndrome. Therefore, a diet rich in omega 3’s such as those found in purslane can keep this condition at bay.

Autism: A diet rich in omega 3’s may help children with autism.

Blood Sugar: Research shows that diets rich in omega 3 fatty acids may decrease insulin resistance in people with diabetes. Just a handful of purslane day can help keep your blood sugar in check.

Baby Development: According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) benefit both eye and cognitive development in babies. According to the study

Reduced Risk of Pneumonia:  A higher intake of omega 3 has been found to reduce the risk of pneumonia.

Heart Health: Omega 3 helps to boost the strength of the cardiovascular system. These powerful fatty acids can reduce “bad” cholesterol and promote healthy cholesterol. In addition, consuming foods high in omega-3’s has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of heart disease and atherosclerosis which helps prevent the incidence of heart attack and stroke. In addition, purslane contains potassium which reduces blood pressure as it acts as a vasodilator, relaxing blood vessels and deceasing strain on the heart muscle.


You have probably heard the word antioxidants before. These are manmade and naturally occurring chemicals that help fight free radicals that cause cellular damage. In fact, antioxidants can help protect you from serious conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and macular degeneration.

Purslane is rich in vitamins A, C and E which are all known for their antioxidant potency. In addition, this edible weed also contains two betalain alkaloid pigments, beta-cyanins and beta-xanthins, which also act as antioxidants.  Antioxidants also help protect you from certain types of cancers, specifically lung and oral cancers. The beta cyanins and beta xanthins have a anti-mutagenic impact on the body as they prevent free radicals from causing mutations to healthy cells. This keeps cancer development at bay.

Vitamins and Minerals

The vitamins and minerals in purslane including iron, magnesium, potassium and manganese are all beneficial to health.

Improved Circulation: The iron and copper in purslane  help to stimulate the production of red blood cells. Because of these minerals, there is more oxygen being delivered to essential parts of the body, along with increased speed of healing cells and organs, improved metabolic efficiency and even increased hair growth.

Strong Bones: The wide variety of minerals in purslane work together to protect bones. The elements required to build strong hone tissue include calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. These elements also help speed the healing process of bones which can help prevent osteoporosis.

Improved Vision: Both vitamin A and beta-carotene have been associated with eye health. Studies show that purslane can help reduce the risk of macular degeneration and cataracts by eliminating free radicals that attack and damage the eyes and can cause commonly age-related diseases.

Skin Conditions: The vitamin A in purslane along with other nutrients can help reduce inflammation when applied topically to stings and bites. Also, it can boost the appearance, stimulate cellular healing, decrease the appearance of wrinkles, scars and blemishes.

Gastrointestinal Health  In traditional Chinese medicine, purslane is used for a number of gastrointestinal conditions including diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, dysentery and hemorrhoids. Even today the herb known as Ma Chi Xian in Chinese medicine is used to treat numerous intestinal conditions. It is thought to be effective mainly due to the numerous beneficial organic compounds it contains including dopamine, citric acid, alanine, glucose and malic acid.

Weight Loss Aid  If you are looking to drop a few pounds, look to the nutrient-dense purslane that is also loaded with fiber. If you consume a meal that contains purslane you will feel full and be less likely to overeat.

How to Grow Your Own Purslane

If you want your very own stash of purslane, it is remarkably easy to grow. Simply scatter seeds (available tobuy from here) over a sunny or partly sunny area that has some good organic soil or compost. Do not cover the seeds, they need light in order to germinate. Water lightly and wait for germination. Be sure to harvest the purslane regularly or it will become invasive. It is best to harvest before the flowers open.

You can also set cutting into the ground and water them. They generally root within a few days.

Be sure to collect the seeds at the end of the season and plant them next year.

If you are going to collect purslane from other places, be sure that it has not been sprayed with pesticides.

If you are buying purslane from your local farmer’s market or health store, look for leaves that are perky, not floppy. Don’t buy the herb if it has brown spots or appears dry. It is always best to use fresh purslane within a day or so in order to reap all of its benefits.

Preserving Dandelion Roots

How To Harvest Dandelion Roots & 7 Ways To Use Them

Dandelion roots can be used fresh from the ground for both culinary and medicinal purposes but if you want to store some of your harvest for future use, you’ll need to dehydrate it.

If you have a dehydrator, simply slice the cleaned roots into strips of equal size and dry them until brittle.

Alternatively, wrap each whole root with a long piece of string and hang in cool, dry location with good air flow for several days until completely brittle. Once dry, cut into small pieces.

Whichever method you choose, store your dried root in a glass jar for up to a year. If dried correctly, the outer flesh of the dandelion root should have a dark color while the inner flesh should be creamy white.

Using Your Dandelion Root

There are several ways to utilize your dandelion root harvest. Here are some of the best:

1. Dandelion Root Tincture

A tincture is a fast-acting, alcohol-based plant medicine. Dandelion root tincture is used for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is also said to be a fantastic diuretic, blood cleanser and natural detoxifier for the liver, spleen and gallbladder.

Herbalists use the dandelion root tincture to improve overall health and vitality, regulate blood sugar, reduce stress, eliminate age spots and clear up skin condition like psoriasis, eczema, and acne.

To make a tincture:

  1. Place the dandelion root in a jar and cover with 100 proof (50%) vodka. Ensure there is at least an inch of vodka above the dandelion roots. The 100 proof vodka enables the alcohol concentration to stay high enough to prevent fermentation and rot.
  2. Cover tightly and allow to steep for 6 weeks, shaking daily.
  3. Strain out the root using a muslin cloth and store the liquid tincture in a sterilized dark glass bottle. Compost the roots.
  4. For optimum health, take a few drops daily in juice or water.

2. Dandelion Root Infusion / Tea

Probably the most common use of dandelion roots, this healing tea is high in antioxidants, helps balance blood sugar, aids digestion, acts as a natural diuretic and mild laxative, cleanses the liver, prevents UTIs and more.

To make this simple infusion:

  1. Place one ounce of dried roots or two ounces of fresh roots in a pot with one pint of water. Bring to a boil, cover, and simmer for 20 minutes. Strain and compost the roots.

3. Dandelion Root Decoction

decoction is an infusion which has been reduced to one-half its volume by slow evaporation. They are more potent than infusions and keep for longer if carefully stored under refrigeration.

You can use the decoction for anything you would use the infusion/tea – except you can simply imbibe a smaller amount for the same effect. This makes decoctions particularly effective for treating children or animals. One cup of infusion is equal to one quarter cup of a simple decoction.

To make a decoction:

  1. Make the simple infusion/tea outlined above.
  2. Heat the infused liquid until it begins to steam (but before it simmers). Turn the heat to low and steam until the liquid is reduced to one quarter of its original volume.
  3. Once cooled, pour the decoction into a sterile dark bottle and store in the refrigerator.

4. Dandelion Root Poultice

Dandelion root can be used in a poultice to treat skin disorders like acne, eczema, itching, psoriasis, rashes, abscesses and boils.

Follow the steps below to make a simple poultice:

  1. Process one cup of dried dandelion root in a food processor into a fine powder.
  2. Add a small amount of warm water to the powder to form a thick paste.
  3. Spread the paste over a piece of gauze and apply to the clean, dry, affected area.
  4. Wrap the poultice with plastic wrap and a towel and secure it with a safety pin.
  5. Leave for 20 minutes to three hours as needed and repeat as necessary.

5. Dandelion Root Coffee

Roasted dandelion root is a delicious caffeine-free alternative to coffee. Combine it with roasted chicory root for a deep, slightly bitter flavor. This recipe also mixes in cinnamon for a sweet spiciness with added healing properties.

To make:

  1. Place four cups of water, two tablespoons of ground roasted dandelion root, two tablespoons of ground roasted chicory root and one cinnamon stick in a pot.
  2. Bring to a boil, then simmer for five minutes.
  3. Strain and enjoy your healthy coffee substitute, adding a milk of your choice if desired.

6. Dandelion Root Vinegar  Blend dandelion root with apple cider vinegar for a delicious vinegar that works well in salads and soups. You can also add it to water to get your daily dose of apple cider vinegar with the extra health benefits of dandelion.

For a gut friendly vinegar simply:

  1. Fill a mason jar two-thirds full with finely chopped fresh or dried dandelion root. Fill to the top withraw apple cider vinegar with ‘the mother’.
  2. Leave to infuse for six weeks, in a cool place away from direct sunlight, before straining through a muslin cloth. Store in a sealed glass jar.

7. Dandelion Root Smoothies  If you’re a green smoothie lover – and here are 13 reasons why you should be – consider adding some dandelion root to your shake to boost the nutritional content and support the liver.

If using dried root, place it in the blender and process to a fine powder before adding the other ingredients. If using fresh dandelion root, you can blend it with all the other ingredients as normal.


Dandelion is generally considered safe to take, although medicinal herbs are potent time-honored treatments so speaking to your doctor before use is recommended.

Avoid dandelion if:

  • You are allergic to ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigold, chamomile, yarrow, daisies, asters or iodine.
  • It triggers heartburn symptoms or irritates the skin.
  • You are pregnant or nursing.

Those who have gallstones, biliary tract obstruction, stomach ulcers, gastritis or irritable bowel should speak with their health care provider before taking dandelion, as should those on potassium supplements, blood thinners or medications to treat infection.

Wondering what to do with your leftover dandelion leaves and blossoms? Here are 25 great ideas for you to try out.

25 Reasons To Go & Pick Dandelions Right Now

25 Reasons To Go & Pick Dandelions Right Now

March 11, 2016 by Jayne Leonard

Who hasn’t seen those pesky yellow weeds pop up in the garden from time to time? Yet try as you might – from picking them to poisoning them – nothing keeps them at bay for too long.

Perhaps it’s time you embraced the tenacious dandelion and all the benefits it can bring?

”Probably the most well-known of all weeds, the humble dandelion is actually bursting with vitamins A, B, C, and D, as well as minerals such as iron, potassium, and zinc. The great news is that there’s probably a ton of this nutritious weed in your backyard.

Dandelion has been used throughout history to treat everything from liver problems and kidney disease to heartburn and appendicitis. Today, it is mainly used as a diuretic, appetite stimulant and for the liver and gallbladder.

Every part of this common weed is edible, from the roots to the blossoms. Use the leaves in sandwiches and stir fries – they boast more beta carotene than carrots, meaning they are great for healthy eyes! Roots can be made into a herbal tea, or roasted and ground as a coffee substitute. The sweet flower heads will add color to salads and can be used to make wines.”


The Health Benefits of Dandelions

Dandelion has been used throughout history to treat everything from liver problems and kidney disease to heartburn and appendicitis.

Every part of this common weed – from the roots to the blossoms – is edible. It’s a good thing too, as the humble dandelion is bursting with vitamins A, B, C and D, as well as minerals such as iron, potassium and zinc.

Some benefits of eating your weeds:

  • The leaves boastmore beta carotene than carrots, meaning they are great for healthy eyes!
  • The greens alsoprovide 535% of the recommended daily value of vitamin K, which is vital for strengthening bones and preventing cognitive decline.
  • A2011 study showed that dandelion root tea may induce leukemia cells to die. Researchers reported that the tea didn’t send the same ‘kill’ message to healthy cells.
  • The plant isa diuretic that helps the kidneys clear out waste, salt and excess water by increasing urine production – perhaps the reason that European children’s lore claims you will wet the bed if you pick the flowers!
  • With such a rich nutrient load, the plant is filled with antioxidants – which may help stave off premature aging, cancer, and other illnesses caused by oxidative stress.
  • Animalstudies discovered that dandelion root and leaf manages cholesterol levels.
  • Research alsoshows that dandelion extract boosts immune function and fights off microbes.
  • Dandelion can also help the digestive systemaccording to the University of Maryland Medical Center. Fresh or dried dandelion can stimulate the appetite and settle the stomach while the root of the plant may act as a mild laxative.

25 Remarkable Uses for Dandelions

In the Kitchen  Because the entire plant is edible there are a myriad of ways in which you can use dandelion for culinary purposes.

  1. Sautéed Greens and Garlic With their rich mineral and vitamin content, dandelion greens are a healthy addition to any meal. Sautéing withgarlic(or ginger or capers) adds flavor and negates some of the bitterness often associated with these leaves. Blanching them by immersing them in boiling water for 20 to 30 seconds helps reduce this acrid taste. Avoid the very mature leaves as these can be too unpleasant for some. This double garlic and greens recipe is a delicious one.
  2. Dandelion Pumpkin Seed Pesto This nutritious pesto is perfect for a simple pasta, sandwich spread or veggie dip. Because the dandelion greens have a slight bite, the toasted pumpkin seeds, lemon juice and parmesan are vital to bring balance. Here ishow you make it.
  3. Tempura Blossoms Fried dandelion flowers, first dipped in seasoned batter, make a tasty, attractive and novel snack or side dish. By removing all the bitter green parts, you’re left with the mild-tasting and faintly sweet blossoms. Followthis recipe here.
  4. Herbal Vinegar Enjoy increased wellbeing by using this herbal vinegar on salads, in dressings, soups, stews and sauces or by simply mixing with water and drinking as a revitalizing tonic. Infuse dandelion flowers inapple cider vinegar for four weeks, strain and store in a dark place for up to twelve months. These steps outline how to make the infusion.
  5. Vegetarian Risotto Cook the flowers and make them into a jewel-like vegetarian risotto. While the dandelions add visual appeal and a mild sweet taste, the onion, wine, stock, creamy yogurt and parmesan lend a rich, deep flavor and smooth texture. The Vegetarian Societyinspired recipe can be found here.
  6. Kimchi Instead of thetraditional spicy and sour Korean kimchi which is made with cabbage, this foraged alternative uses dandelion greens. Eat your way to good gut health by fermenting the greens with herbs, spices, green onions and soy sauce, as outlined in this recipe.
  7. Savory Muffins These soaked muffins, made with whole wheat flour, oatmeal, honey and dandelion petals are perfect for serving with Spring time soups such as asparagus or green pea. Learnhow to make them here.
  8. Petal Sorbet Make a delicious iced treat from freshly picked dandelion blossoms, sugar,honey and lemon juice. It’s perfect for a summer’s day in the garden, or served after one of the many dandelion-inspired main meals here! You’ll find the recipe here.
  9. Jelly This delicate jelly is delicious and sweet as honey. Use it on top of toast, crumpets or anything else that takes your fancy. It keeps in an airtight container for up to two weeks – but it definitely won’t last that long! FollowMartha Stewart’s recipe.
  10. Pancake and Waffle Syrup Love pancake syrup but want to avoid the sickly sweet store-bought variety, which is loaded with nasty artificial additives and preservatives? Then this is the recipe for you! It’s made with just three ingredients – dandelions, lemon and sugar or honey. Thetwo-day process is described here.
  11. Dandelion Blossom Cake A sweet, delicious and slightly tropical cake made with dandelion syrup, blossom petals,cinnamon, crushed pineapple, walnuts and coconut, this is sure to be a hit with the whole family. Click here to go to the recipe.
  12. Dandelion Cookies Another sweet dandelion based treat, these healthy lemony cookies include organic local honey and oats.
  13. Dandelion Root Coffee As we’ve found out, no part of the humble dandelion has to go to waste. After you’ve sautéed the greens, and used the blossoms in your dessert, hang onto the roots and brew a caffeine-free alternative tocoffee. Roast them before grinding for a deep, earthy flavor. Discoverexactly what to do here.
  14. Iced Lime and Dandelion Tea This pretty iced lime and dandelion tea is so good even the kids will love it. It’s also refreshing, natural and has many skin promoting properties. Blend a quart of dandelion flowers with fresh lime juice, stevia leaves or other sweetener, and dried red raspberry leaf. Learn how to makethis healing tea here.
  15. Dandelion Wine Surprisingly, these pesky weeds can make afine country wine– rich, strong and medium sweet. Head out into the countryside (or backyard) with a gallon container and collect enough complete flowers to loosely fill it. Ferment these with water, lemon zest and raisins for a couple of months before enjoying. The full wine making process is detailed here.
  16. Danish Schnapps – Two Ways If country wine isn’t your thing, perhaps a Danish schnapps sounds more appealing? Make it with the flower heads for a fresh, aromatic and mildly sweet taste which goes well with chocolate, sweet desserts and cakes. Or, for a dry, spicy and very aromatic drink, brew it with the roots. Enjoy the schnapps on its own or serve with roast meat and other robust flavors. Therecipes can be found here.

For Health and Beauty  Dandelion’s properties extend beyond the dinner table – they can also be harnessed to reduce pain and inflammation, and treat minor skin maladies.

  1. Moisturizer Trymaking this dandelion and coconut oil moisturizer that’s great for dry elbows and feet, helps to relieve sore muscles and aches and can also be used as a lip balm or aftershave. Get the recipe here.
  2. Pain Relieving Oil Dandelions are one of the most useful plants toreduce joint pain and aching muscles. Infuse the flowers in an oil and rub onto sore muscles and joints, or anywhere pain strikes. To make, simply fill a small mason jar with fresh dandelion flowers and pour in a base oil – like sweet almond or olive – until the jar is full. Leave to infuse in a warm place for two weeks before straining the oil and decanting into a sterilized jar. Store in the fridge. For a full tutorial with step by step photos, click here.
  3. Pain Relieving Salve For a more portable version of the pain relieving oil, go one step further and turn the infusion into a soothing balm – ideal for carrying in your purse or gym bag, or keeping in the car or office. Create a double boiler and blend beeswax with the infused oil. Pour this mixture into a jar or tin and allow to cool before using. Exact measurements andinstructions are here.
  4. Lotion Bars These therapeutic lotion bars help the toughest cases of cracked, dry skin by adding moisture and alleviating inflammation and soreness. If you’re an avid gardener, or frequently do very manual work, rub the bar over your hands several times a day. It’s a lot less messy than salve! Blend infused dandelion oil with beeswax,shea butter and lavender essential oil for a silky, smooth healing bar. The full process is detailed here.
  5. Wart Remover Dandelions are a natural wart remover. You’ve probably noticed that the roots, stems and leaves of the plant exude a white sticky resin – this is the secret weapon against warts. Apply this sap directly onto warts once, or several times, per day and they should soon disappear.

In the Home and Garden  Use dandelions to add a pop of color to your home, or some much needed nutrients to the garden.

  1. Floating Table Centerpiece Make a stunning and chic dandelion centerpiece simply using reclaimed wood and small nails. Assemble a box from the wood, hammer small finishing nails through the underside, and slide handpicked dandelions on top – creating a centerpiece that appears to be floating. Find outmore here.
  2. Natural Yellow Dye Cook dandelion heads for an all-natural alternative to chemical-based dyes – which cancontribute to water pollution. This is an especially useful tip for those who weave their own wool but can be used on any garment. Here is how you can use the dye to brighten up your fabrics.
  3. Fertilizer Aliquid fertilizer, or ‘weed tea’ is simple to make and will give your garden a boost of nutrients. Deep rooted dandelions are especially valuable weeds as they are so nutritious. Since you can’t toss them into the compost pile as their seeds are still viable, brew up this organic fertilizer instead and pour or spray it onto flower beds and vegetable gardens. Here is the simple process for making the fertilizer.
  4. Feed Your Goats If you keep goats (andhere’s why you should!) then you’ll know that they need a diverse, vegetarian diet. Use your unwanted dandelion weeds to form a portion of that balanced diet. Research has shown that animals choose what to eat based on their individual nutritional needs so if you simply leave the dandelions for the goats, they’ll most likely munch on them and save you the job of weeding!

Save Some For The Bees!

Dandelions are the first food of the season for the bees. When picking the dandelions, make sure not to claim them all for yourself. Leave enough for the bees to enjoy. And learn more about ways we can save the bees and why we should here. 


Yavapai County Native & Naturalized Plants

We are always researching for our preparedness and we came across this chart of all of the local plant in Yavapai County.  

Yavapai County Native & Naturalized Plants    
Common Name Index


  Home   Plant Communities Plant List Search Forbs Search Grasses Search Woody Plants Additional Resources About this Website


View Scientific Names
Agave and Yuccas
banana yucca




fineleaf yucca


goldenflower century


Parry’s agave


soaptree yucca




beavertail cactus


brown-spine prickly pear


cactus apple


Christmas cholla


claret cup cactus


Common beehive cactus


dollarjoint pricklypear


Engelmann’s hedgehog cactus


Graham’s nipple cactus


pinkflower hedgehog 




strawberry hedgehog


whipple cholla


Abert’s buckwheat


Adonis blazingstar


Albert’s creeping zinnia




alkali buttercup


alpine pennygrass


Alpine woodsorrel


American black nightshade


American dragonhead


American speedwell


American vetch


American wild carrot


annual Townsend daisy


Apache lobelia


aridland goosefoot


Arizona bladderpod


Arizona mousetail


Arizona popcornflower


Arizona poppy


Arizona ragwort


Arizona scarlet-bugler


Arizona thistle


Arizona valerian


ashen milkvetch


aspen fleabane


baby slippers


bajada lupine


basin bladderpod


bastard toadflax


bearded cryptantha


beardlip penstemon




betonyleaf brickellbush


biannual lettuce


bigbract verbena


Bigelow onion


Bigelow’s amaranth


Bigelow’s linanthus


birdbill dayflower


birdsfoot trefoil


bitter dock


black bindweed


black medic


black mustard


blue milkwort


blue skullcap


Bluebonnet lupine




blunt tansymustard




branched noseburn


bridge penstemon


bristlecup sandmat


broadfruit combseed


Broadleaf cattail


broadleaf lupine


broom milkwort




brownplume wirelettuce


buffalobur nightshade


butterfly milkweed


caliche globe mallow


California brickellbush


California caltrop


California cottonrose


California plumeseed




Canada goldenrod


Canadian horseweed


Canadian white violet


canaigre dock






Carruth’s sagewort




chaparral fleabane


chaparral nightshade




Chihuahuan brickellbush


clasping Venus’ looking-glass


Cleveland’s desertdandelion


clustered broomrape


Colorado four o’clock


Columbian monkshood


common dandelion


common hop


common mallow


common mouse-ear chickweed


common mullein


Common plantain


common sheep sorrel


common sowthistle


common sunflower


Cooper’s rubberweed


Coulter’s spiderling


Coulter’s wrinklefruit


cream cup


crested anoda


crestrib morning-glory






curly dock


curlycup gumweed


curlytop gumweed


curlytop knotweed


curvepod fumewort


curveseed butterwort


cushion cryptantha


cutleaf coneflower


cutleaf waterparsnip


Dakota mock vervain


Dalmatian toadflax


Davidson’s buckwheat


dense false gilyflower


desert biscuitroot


desert broomrape


desert globemallow


desert Indian paintbrush


desert marigold


desert mariposa lily


desert penstemon


desert princesplume


desert tobacco


desert trumpet


desert wishbone-bush


desert woollystar


devil’s beggartick


devil’s claw


diffuse knapweed


distant phacelia


dotted smartweed


doubting mariposa lily


Douglas’ knotweed


Drummond’s false pennyroyal


dwarf false pennyroyal


dwarf four o’clock


dwarf Indian mallow


dwarf milkweed


dwarf prairie clover


dwarf stickpea


Eastern Mojave buckwheat


Eastwood’s monkeyflower


Engelmann’s milkweed


erect spiderling


eyed gilia


fall tansyaster


false agoseris


false boneset


Fendler’s desert dandelion


Fendler’s drymary


Fendler’s globemallow


Fendler’s meadow-rue


Fendler’s sandwort


fetid goosefoot


fewflower beggartick


field anoda


field bindweed


field sagewort




fineleaf hymenopappus


firecracker penstemon




fivewing spiderling


flatspine bur ragweed


flatspine stickseed


flaxflowered ipomopsis


foothill deervetch


Fort Bowie prairie clover


fragrant snakeroot


freckled milkvetch


fringed redmaids


fringed rockdaisy


fringed twinevine


fringed willowherb


Fuller’s teasel


garden asparagus


glandular threadplant


golden columbine


golden crownbeard


golden tickseed


gooseberryleaf globemallow


Gordon’s bladderpod


Graham’s ticktrefoil


grassleaf mudplantain


great ragweed


greenleaf five eyes


greenspot nightshade


groundcover milkvetch


hairy beggarticks


hairy evening primrose


halfmoon milkvetch






head sandmat


henbit deadnettle


herb sophia


hiddenflower phacelia


Hill’s lupine


hoary Townsend daisy


Hooker’s evening primrose




horned pondweed


horned spurge


horsetail milkweed


hummingbird trumpet


husk tomato


hyssopleaf sandmat


Indian rushpea




ivyleaf groundcherry 


ivyleaf morning-glory


James’ buckwheat


James’ cryptantha


Jerusalem oak goosefoot




largeflower onion


leafy pondweed


least duckweed


lesser wirelettuce


Lewis flax


limestone bedstraw


limestone phacelia


Lindley’s silverpuffs


little bur-clover


little hogweed


little redstem monkeyflower


littleleaf brickellbush


lobeleaf groundsel


London rocket


longcapsule suncup


longleaf cologania


longleaf false goldeneye


longleaf pondweed


Loomis’ thimblehead


Louisiana vetch


MacDougal’s Indian parsley


maiden blue eyed Mary


Maltese star-thistle


Mangas Spring phacelia


manyflowered ipomopsis






mat amaranth


mealy goosefoot


Mearn’s bird’s-foot trefoil


Menzies’ fiddleneck


mesa tansyaster


Metcalfe’s ticktrefoil


Mexican gold poppy


miner’s lettuce


miniature woollystar


Missouri goldenrod


Missouri gourd


mock cypress


Mojave milkweed


moth combseed


moth mullein


narrowleaf four o’clock


narrowleaf plantain


narrowleaf stoneseed


narrowstem cryptantha


Navajo fleabane


netted globecherry


Nevada biscuitroot


Nevada cryptantha


Nevada pea


New Mexico copperleaf


New Mexico fleabane


New Mexico plumeseed


New Mexico thistle


New Mexico ticktrefoil


night scented stock


Nuttall’s linanthus


Oak Creek ragwort


oblongleaf false pennyroyal


orange fameflower


pale evening primrose


Palmer’s buckwheat


Palmer’s penstemon


Pennsylvania pellitory


Pennsylvania smartweed




perennial rockcress


pineywoods geranium


pink alumroot


pinyon goosefoot


pitseed goosefoot


plains blackfoot


plains flax, yellow flax


poison hemlock


Powell’s amaranth


prairie spiderwort


prairie sunflower


prickly lettuce


prickly Russian thistle


pricklyleaf dogweed


prostrate knotweed


prostrate pigweed


prostrate sandmat




purple bird’s-beak


purple locoweed


purple loosestrife


purple owl clover


purplenerve springparsley


pygmy bluet


radishroot woodsorrel


ragleaf bahia


red dome blanketflower


redroot amaranth


redroot buckwheat


redroot cryptantha


redwhisker clammyweed


ribseed sandmat


Richardson’s geranium


Rocky Mountain iris


Rocky Mountain zinnia


rockyscree false goldenaster


rose heath


Rose’s ticktrefoil


rosy gilia


rough cocklebur


rough draba


rough menodora


roughseed clammyweed


rue of the mountains


Rusby’s globemallow


Rusby’s milkwort


sacred thorn-apple


San Felipe dogweed


sand fringepod


sand peppergrass


sanddune wallflower


Santa Catalina Mountain phlox


sawtooth sage


scarlet beeblossom


scarlet cinquefoil


scarlet four o’clock


scarlet gilia


scarlet hedgenettle


scarlet spiderling


Scotch thistle


Scouler’s St. Johnswort


seaside petunia


seep monkeyflower


Senator Mine alumroot


shaggy dwarf morning-glory


shepherd’s purse


shorthair goldenrod


shortstem lupine


shrubby purslane


silkcotton purslane


silky sophora


silver dwarf morning-glory


silver puffs


silverleaf nightshade


silvery lupine


sixweeks prairie clover


sleepy catchfly


slender goldenweed


slender phlox


slimflower scurfpea


slimleaf bean


slimleaf plainsmustard


Small matweed


small-flowered globe mallow


smallflowered milkvetch


smooth beggartick


smooth spreading four o’clock


smooththroat stoneseed


snapdragon vine


Sonoran giant hyssop


Sonoran prairie clover


Sonoran sandmat


sorrel buckwheat


southwest mock verain


Southwestern annual saltmarsh


southwestern cosmos


southwestern pricklypoppy


spear globemallow


spearleaf brickellbush




spider milkweed


spiny sowthistle


spotted knapweed


spotted ladysthumb


spotted sandmat


Spreadfruit goldenbanner


spreading chinchweed


spreading fanpetals


spreading fleabane


spreading wallflower


stemless four-nerve daisy


stemless Townsend daisy


stream orchid


sulphur-flower buckwheat




sweet four o’clock


tall annual willowherb


tall morningglory


tall mountain larkspur


tall tumblemustard


tansyleaf tansyaster




tapertip onion,




tasselflower brickelbush


Texas bindweed


Texas croton


Texas milkvine


Texas storksbill


thicksepal cryptantha


Thompson’s beardtongue


threadleaf ragwort


threadstem carpet weed


threadstem sandmat


threenerve goldenrod


Thurber’s penstemon


Thurber’s pepperweed


thymeleaf sandmat


toadflax penstemon


toothleaf goldeneye


Torrey’s milkvetch




tower rockcress


trailing fleabane


trailing four o’clock


Transpecos morning-glory


tuber anemone


tufted evening primrose


tufted globe amaranth


tumbling saltweed


twincrest onion


twinleaf senna


upright blue beardtongue


upright prairie coneflower


varileaf phacelia


veiny brickellbush


velvetseed milkwort




Virginia pepperweed


warty caltrop


warty spurge




water knotweed


water speedwell






wavyleaf twinevine


weakleaf bur ragweed


wedgeleaf draba


western ragweed


western rockjasmine


western springbeauty


western water hemlock


western white clematis


western yarrow


Wheeler’s thistle


wheelscale saltbush




white clover


white milkwort


white panicle aster 


white prairie aster


white prairie clover


white sagebrush


White sweet clover


white water crowfoot


whitedaisy tidytips


whiteflower prairie clover


whitemargin sandmat


whitest evening primrose


whitestem blazingstar


whitestem paperflower


wholeleaf Indian paintbrush


wild bergamot


wild celery


wild dwarf morning-glory


wild mint


wild parsnip


wild potato winding mariposa lily


winecup clarkia


wingnut cryptantha


wingpod purslane


wishbone fiddleleaf


Woodhouse’s phlox


woody crinklemat


woolly desert marigold


woolly eriophyllum


woolly plantain


woolly tidestromia


woollyhead neststraw


Wright’s bedstraw


Wright’s cudweed


Wright’s deervetch


Wright’s goldenrod


Wright’s thelypody


Wright’s thimblehead


yellow evening primrose


yellow hawkweed


yellow linanthus


yellow nightshade groundcherry


yellow salsify


yellow spiderflower


yellow-spine thistle


annual muhly


annual rabbitsfoot grass


Arizona cottontop


Arizona fescue


Barnyard grass




big sacaton


black dropseed


black grama


blue grama


bristly wolfstail




bulb panicgrass






bush muhly


cane beardgrass




creeping muhly






delicate muhly


feather fingergrass


foxtail barley


fringed brome


green sprangletop


hairy grama


hairy woollygrass


Hall’s panicgrass


Indian ricegrass








Kentucky bluegrass


little barley


low woollygrass


marshland muhly


mat grama


Mexican lovegrass


mountain muhly




needle grama


New Mexico feathergrass


New Mexico muhly


nineawn pappusgrass




perennial ryegrass


pine dropseed


plains lovegrass


purple lovegrass


purple threeawn


red brome


ring muhly


ripgut brome


rough bentgrass


sand dropseed


sideoats grama


sixweeks grama


sixweeks threeawn


slim tridens


smooth brome




spike dropseed


spike muhly






streambed bristlegrass


tall wheatgrass








vine mesquite


weeping lovegrass


western wheatgrass


wild oat




American threefold


apache plume


ashy silktassel


blue elderberry


broom snakeweed


California buckthorn




catclaw mimosa


cliff fendlerbush


common hoptree


creeping barberry


creosote bush




desert baccharis


desert broom


Emory’s baccharis




false indigo




Fendler ceanothus


four-wing saltbush


Fremont’s mahonia


golden currant


gray felt thorn


gray thorn


greenleaf manzanita


gregg ceanothus


hollyleaf buckthorn




littleleaf ratany


Mexican cliffrose


mormon tea


mountain snowberry


New Mexico olive


New Mexico raspberry




pointleaf manzanita


purple sage


rabbit thorn


red barberry


roundleaf snowberry


rubber rabbitbrush


shortleaf baccharis


shrub live oak


shrubby buckwheat


skunk bush


slender buckwheat


spiny greasebush


sugar sumac


true mountain mahogany


turpentine bush


Utah Serviceberry


Virgin River brittlebush


water wally


wax currant


western poison ivy




Woods’ rose


Woods’ rose


Wright silk tassel


Wright’s baccharis


Wright’s beebrush


yellowleaf manzanita


yerba santa




alligator juniper


Arizona alder


Arizona cypress


Arizona sycamore


Arizona walnut


Arizona white oak


bigtooth maple


black cherry


black elderberry


blue paloverde




canyon live oak


catclaw acacia




coyote willow


desert ironwood


desert willow




Emory oak


Fremont cottonwood


Gambel oak


Goodding willow


honey mesquite


narrowleaf cottonwood


netleaf hackberry


New Mexico locust


one seed juniper


Palmer oak


pinyon pine


ponderosa pine


quaking aspen


red willow


redberry juniper


Rocky Mountain juniper


Russian olive




screwbean mesquite


Siberian elm


singleleaf ash


singleleaf pinyon


smooth sumac


southern catalpa


Texas mulberry


tree of heaven


Utah juniper


velvet ash


velvet mesquite


western soapberry


white fir


white mulberry


yellow paloverde


canyon grape


Virginia creeper


white virgin’s bower












  Arizona Cooperative Extension
Yavapai County
840 Rodeo Dr #C
Prescott, AZ 86305
(928) 445-6590
Version 6.0  
Last Updated: June 24, 2016  
Content Questions/Comments: Email Jeff Schalau  
Legal Disclaimer  


Making tortillas at home

We love making everything from scratch. Lately, tortillas have been on our mind. I have many different recipes that we have used over the years however, we are trying out a new recipe this week for regular corn tortillas.  We had picked up two tortilla presses from years ago, but they are not necessary if you have a rolling pin (just a lot harder to get even and round tortillas.)IMG_20160818_121915 IMG_20160818_114735885_HDRIMG_20160818_114745408

These are extremely easy and are GLUTEN FREE if you use the masa harina that I have pictured below. 

IMG_20160818_125531957_HDRHere are a few tips to making tortillas…

  • Plastic wrap, Saran wrap or even a gallon sized zipper bag will work GREAT to prevent sticking on the tortilla press.  (TIME SAVER!)
  • If you are using a rolling pin instead of a tortilla press, make sure that you are 100% even on the rolling of the tortilla dough so that it doesn’t cook unevenly.  

The Masa bag says that this makes 18 – 6 inch tortillas – It makes more like 10 or so… and 8 if you counts the ones that kids keep snitching from the plate. We double or triple the recipe below to make enough for our clan. 

2 cups masa harina (we have found this at the local Mercado as well as our local Safeway)
1/2 teaspoon kosher salt ( I use pink Himalayan Salt) 
1 1/2 cups hot water 


Prepare the tortilla press: Cut the zip-top bag open along the sides or wrap the base of the tortilla press with plastic wrap. Open the tortilla press and lay the opened bag on top. You will only need to do this ONCE during the process. You can reuse the plastic for all of the tortillas. 
  1. Mix the masa harina and the salt together in a mixing bowl. Pour in the water and stir to combine.
  2. Using your hands, knead the dough for a minute or two in the bowl or you can use a dough hook attachment on your kitchen aide. The dough is ready when it’s smooth, but no longer sticky, and easy forms a ball in your hand. The dough should feel a bit “springy,”. –  If the dough absorbs all the water but is still dry and crumbly, add water a tablespoon at a time. If the dough feels sticky, or gummy, add more masa a tablespoon at a time.
  3. Cover the bowl with a towel and rest the dough for 15 to 30 minutes. 
  4.  Pinch off a few tablespoons of dough and roll it between your hands to form a ball about the size of a ping-pong ball. This will make roughly a 6-inch tortilla. If you want larger tortillas, use more dough. 
  5.  Place the ball of dough on the plastic-covered tortilla press in the middle of the IMG_20160818_114753019press. Fold the other side of the plastic bag over the top of the dough. Bring the top of the press down over the dough, then press with the handle to flatten the dough to about 1/8-inch thick. If the tortilla doesn’t look quite even after pressing or you’d like it a little thinner, rotate the tortilla in the plastic and re-press.
  6.  Peel away the top of the plastic, flip the tortilla over onto your palm, and peel off the back of the plastic. Be careful that you don’t tear the tortilla… Although, they taste the same whole or torn. 
  7. You can either cook the tortillas as you press them, or you can press all the tortillas and then cook them. Keep both the dough and the stack of pressed tortillas covered with clean towels. If you choose to press all the tortillas and then cook them, be careful when peeling each tortilla off the stack — they can stick to each other or break around the edges, especially the ones on the bottom.
  8. Warm a large, flat cast iron griddle or skillet over medium-high heat. 
  9. Gently position as many tortillas in the pan as will fit in a single layer without overlapping. Cook for 2 to 3 minutes, until the edges are starting to curl up and the bottoms look dry and pebbly. Flip and cook another 2 to 3 minutes on the other side. 
  10. Serve Immediately! You can also save these for a few days in the fridge. However, they never last that long in our house. 


Let’s Talk Goats – Oathkeeper Preparedness Presentation

Basic Goat Facts

  • Female goats are Does or Nannies
  • Male goats are Bucks or Billies
  • Young goats are Kids (AKA doelings or bucklings)
  • Neutured males are Wethers
  • Goats are herding animals and do get lonely when by themselves.
  • Goats are intelligent animals
  • Goats are good at climbing trees, cars and buildings
  • Goats have a distinct pecking order (you will always have a “queen” in your herd.)
  • Goats can live for 15 to 18 years and does can breed until well into their senior years.
  • Goat milk is healthy and nutritious
  • Goat milk is more digestible than cow’s milk due to lactose molecule size (many lactose intolerant can drink goat milk)
  • They are the smallest domesticated ruminant
  • Goats are herbivores and are considered browsers and will eat leaves, grass, shrubs, etc.
  • Goats have been used by mankind longer than cows or sheep

Goats need fresh water, dry fresh food, and a shelter. Not only can you milk goats, but their meat is tasty and goats usable on a homestead to eat down weeds and other vegetation.

What do goats eat?  Hay is the general name for a number of dried grasses and legumes such as alfalfa and clover. Commonly used plants for hay include types of grasses such as Ryegrass, Timothy, Bluegrass & Orchard grass. Legume hays such as alfalfa and clover tend to be higher in protein. Feeding goats a mixed grass hay and other greens may be best as alfalfa can be too rich and may cause health problems. We feed our goats a mixture of alfalfa, alfalfa pellets, sweet grain, Chaffhaye (which is a naturally fermented alfalfa hay), soaked beet pulp, wheat/Austrian pea fodder, black oil sunflower seeds, fresh carrots and lettuce/chard and in the summer, weeds from our garden. We also have a mineral block out for them. We limit our corn and other straight grains to prevent belly aches.

This is just a partial list of what is poisonous to a goat: Avocado leaves, Foxglove, Black Walnut, Holly trees/bushes, Lilacs, Milkweed, Mountain Laurel, Nightshades (tomato plants leaves), Oleander, Rhubarb and Cherry leaves, Azalea, Red Maples, Lily of the Valley

Breeding your goats: Many goats breeds are seasonal breeders. They will go into heat in the fall (from August – December) We generally breed in mid-September for a February kidding season. Most goats’ gestation is about 145-150 days. We keep track of when our males and females breed so that we know approximate birth dates and can be home during a birthing to assist if needed.

Goats have horns! We have our babies disbudded at 10 days old using a heat dissbudder and wether any males with a bander that we aren’t using for our breeding program. Find someone trustworthy to do this!! Horns do get stuck in fences. And disbudding can be dangerous if you do not know what you are doing.

Male goats are stinky!!! While in rut and around females in their breeding season, male goats have a “beautiful” smell, will urinate on themselves among other interesting actions and will call out to you and his ladies… Be careful, because you will look like a goat to him. Does seem to love it. But be warned it is extremely hard to get their stench out of your clothes and takes a good scrub to get the smell off of your skin. I have a single outfit that I wear when working with our males and I toss it at the end of the season. Males will knock down fences or anything in their path to get to the ladies. A males needs at least a 5 foot fence to prevent jumping over over for a “play-date”. My males do live with my females during off-breeding season.

declan2Although there are many different breeds of goats, our homestead chose to have Nubian Dairy goats. We milk twice a day, first thing in the morning and in the evening. We use their milk for drinking, baking, making butter, cheese, and yogurt. You must have at least 2 goats as they are herd animals and need companionship or they can get depressed and lonely. We both hand milk and use a manual milking machine from www.henrymilker.com.

You can purchase mix breeds of dairy/meat goats, full bred goats or registered purebreds goats. Our goats are all registered. The only real difference is that registered goats have proven bloodlines. This prevents inbreeding and gives healthier generations of goats for better milking lines. We carefully select our goats for their linage and breed accordingly. This allows us to pick and choose who is breeding with whom. We currently have 3 bucks and 10 does on our homestead as well as several wethers. We plan on adding a new lines from Colorado to our herd in the spring as well.

Major Goat Diseases – CAE – Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) is a virus that affects goats in multiple ways. Most often characterized by big knees, the virus also does irreparable damage to the lungs as well and affects the immune system leaving the goat defenseless against most common ailments. Can spread via milk from mama to babies and in saliva.

CL – Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL), also known in some parts of the world as “cheesy gland”, is a disease that affects a goats lymphatic system, most often characterized by an external abscess – lump. CL manifests itself either internally, externally, or both and is very contagious to all other goats as well as humans. The size of the abscess is largely dependent upon the immune system and overall health of the goat. An abscess that is allowed to rupture will contaminate the ground for many years and infect other goats that come into contact. Likewise, a goat with internal CL can cough out the bacteria and spread it to other goats as well. There is not a vaccination that cures or prevents CL or CAE in goats. These two diseases are ones that goat breeders try to keep out of their herd.


  1. General = Are they friendly? Do they interact with other goats, humans, dogs, etc? Check teeth, joints, chests, hips and lymph system. Check hooves. Check for lumps, runny nose and eyes? Is their general health good?
  2. Does – Are their teats uniform? Breeding history? Did they lose any kids? Did you have to assist in birthing? Were they good moms? How much milk were you receiving? If a doe has already been milked, ask if you can put her up on a stand. Does she kick?
  3. Bucks – who you want to use for breeding. Is there a record of babies sired? Check that their testicles are uniform.  
  4. If purchasing a kid – Are both parents on site? Can you interact with the parents to see their personalities and mannerisms? Have they been disbudded? Or are the polled (born hornless)?

 COMMON BREEDS OF DAIRY GOATS IN THE US – Mac Mendell, Undergraduate Student, Dept. of Animal Sciences

Nubians have very long floppy ears that should extend about 1 inch beyond the muzzle. They can be any color and should have a convex (Roman) nose. Nubians are one of the larger breeds of goats with a height requirement of 30 inches weighing around 135 pounds. This breed of goat tends to produce somewhat less milk than other breeds, but their milk tends to be higher in protein and butter fat content than other breeds. They tend to be a little bit more stubborn than other dairy goats and make a distinctive sound. Even Nubian kids sound like they are complaining. This is probably the most popular breed of dairy goat in the US. Most Nubian goats in the US derive from English lines developed by crossing English dairy goats with Afrhican and Indiana lop-eared breeds. [ADGA averages for 2010 lactations: 1835 lbs milk, 4.6% fat, and 3.7% protein] Nubians can withstand hotter climates. Nubians can more fleshy than most dairy goats and are used for meat as well as milk.

LaManchas have ears that are so small that it looks like they don’t have ears at all and can be any color. The breed originated in Oregon from crosses of short-eared goats with Nubians. They have a straight nose and are a small breed. LaMancha does are required to be 28 inches in height and a weight of around 130 pounds. The LaMancha sound is typical of other goats. LaManchas are usually more calm and docile than other breeds. They are recognized to be a very productive breed of goats. [ADGA averages for 2010 lactations: 2246 lbs milk, 3.9% fat, and 3.1% protein]

Alpines (French Alpines, British Alpines, and Rock Alpines) can be almost any color, except solid white and light brown with white markings (characteristics of the Toggenburg breed). This breed originated in the French Alps and was first imported to the US in 1920. Their face should be straight and they have erect ears. They are a medium-large breed with a requirement of does to be 30 inches in height and around 135 pounds. They are popular with dairies due to the amount of milk they produce and they are recognized as the leading dairy goat breed for milk production. [ADGA averages for 2010 lactations: 2396 lbs milk, 3.3% fat, and 2.8% protein]

Oberhaslis (Swiss Alpines prior to 1978) have very specific color standards. They are a bay color known as Chamoise, with a black dorsal stripe, udder, belly, and black below the knees. They should also have a nearly black head. Another acceptable color would be all black, but this is only acceptable for does. They have erect ears and are considered a medium-small breed. Oberhaslis does are required to be 28 inches in height and weight around 120 pounds. They produce a moderately high amount of milk and milk components. [ADGA averages for 2010 lactations: 2256 lbs milk, 3.5% fat, and 2.9% protein]

Toggenburgs have very specific color requirements. They range in color from light fawn to dark chocolate and have white ears and white on their lower legs. The side of the tail and two stripes down the face must also be white. They have erect ears and they grow a shaggier coat than other dairy goat breeds. They have the smallest height requirement of 26 inches and weight around 120 pounds, but most of the Toggenburgs are moderate in size. The Toggenburgs are the oldest registered breed of any kind of livestock. They tend to be more spirited and less docile than other breeds. Toggs, as they are nicknamed, rank in the middle of breeds for average milk production, but one holds the all-time records! [ADGA averages for 2010 lactations: 2047 lbs milk, 3.0% fat, and 2.7% protein]

Saanens are usually pure white or light cream, but white is preferred. Their ears should be a medium size and carried erect, preferably pointing forward. They have short fine hair and often have a fringe over the spine and thighs. They have a straight or dished face. They originated in Switzerland, but now represent the second most popular breed of dairy goat in the US. The Saanens are the largest of all breeds with a required height of 30 inches and weighing around 135 pounds. They usually have a large udder capacity and are popular with dairies due to the quality of milk they produce. [ADGA averages for 2010 lactations: 2545 lbs milk, 3.2% fat, and 2.8% protein]

Nigerian Dwarf is a miniature breed of dairy goats. The balanced proportions of the Nigerian Dwarf give it an appearance similar to the larger, Swiss breeds of dairy goats. Shorter height is the primary breed characteristic of the Nigerian Dwarf, with does measuring no more than 22 ½ inches at the withers. They are known for their high quality milk, often with exceptionally high butterfat content. Their medium length ears are erect. The face is either straight or slightly dished. The coat is of medium length and straight. They are the only dairy breed known to occasionally have blue eyes. [ADGA averages for 2010 lactations: 729 lbs milk, 6.1% fat, and 4.4% protein]

A common meat goat – Boer goat is primarily a meat goat with several adaptations to the region in which it was developed. It is a horned breed with lop ears and showing a variety of color patterns. The Boer goat is being used very effectively in South Africa in combination with cattle due to its browsing ability and limited impact on the grass cover. Producing weaning rates in excess of 160% the Boer goat doe is a low maintenance animal that has sufficient milk to rear a kid that is early maturing. The mature Boer Goat buck weighs between 240-300 lbs and ewes between 200-225 lbs. They can be bread with the dairy lines above.

From the website: http://piedmontdairygoats.com/Education.html

goathooves injections-goats

Have you seen what we have on sale on our homestead this week?

Have you seen what we have on sale on our homestead this week?  We always have animals  (or a waiting list available). 

Currently we have the following available: 

Male Rabbits – Rex and New Zealand/Rex Mixes – $10 each

Coturnix Quail (mix of breeds – Pharoah, Texas, Tibetan, Tuxedo) – $3 each or 10+ are $2.50 each

Chicks  (Americauna and barnyard mixes, straight run) $2 each

Misc Ducks – Currently Laying – $10 each (males and females available)

Registered American Nubians (from our registered Male, Declan – at the Neighbors 4 doors down) Doeling – $250, Buckling (intact)- $150, born on 5/23/2016 – See the Craigslist ad: http://prescott.craigslist.org/grd/5705835950.html


buckling-1 doeling1 0730161440gIMG_20160730_160028057_HDR


Oathkeepers Presentation – Prepper 101 – month supply of food

With all of the research that our family does on being prepared and in lines with sharing that information with others, we came across a GREAT article – ADDED BELOW! 

For a demonstration of the the foods, we pulled and brought the amount of foods that they listed below. It all stacked neatly in our farm’s garden cart. 

Prepping 101 – Food Preps: 30 Days Worth Of Food

By Pat H http://www.theprepperjournal.com/2013/02/16/prepper-101-food-preps-30-days-worth-of-food/

When you start to consider prepping, one of the first things you need to start prepping for is food. Simply put, food is one essential you need to live and your family must have a supply of food on hand regardless what the day or your situation is. Because of our just in time supply chain model, most grocery stores do not have more than 3 days’ worth of food stocked. In any type of emergency or disaster situation, the store shelves are cleaned quickly. You do not want to be one of those people who realize you have nothing in the house for dinner and a major snow storm, hurricane or  other event is imminent. You will go to the grocery store and find bare shelves like they did during hurricane Sandy. This happens in every instance where people could face the possibility of going hungry. The stores are cleaned out and the larger your city, the quicker the shelves are bare.

Not only will there be no food on the shelves, but the shelves could stay that way for a long time. What if the roads are impassable? What if there is some supply disruption. You could be out of food for a long time and this should never happen. You eat every day and so does everyone else. Running out of food should not be an option for your family at least for a reasonable amount of time.

FEMA recommends 3 days’ worth of foodand water to last most common emergencies and I would say 30 days is a better goal to shoot for. If you have a month of food stored in your house you can worry about other things like getting back to your family if you are away from home or not going out in the first place to fight the lines of panicked people who waited until the last-minute.

Storing food can be complicated and costly but it is possible to start with a very simple list of itemsthat you can purchase from your local grocery store or big-box chain like Wal-Mart, Costco or Sam’s Club. I have compiled a simple list of common foods that you can go get today that will allow you to feed a family of 4 for 30 days. If you have more or less people or giants in your family tree then you would need to adjust accordingly.

Basic Foods

I shop at Costco or Sam’s, but you can get all of these at your friendly neighborhood grocery store. You may have to adjust the quantities. I like Costco and Sam’s because I can buy larger containers and have to worry about fewer items, but you can also use Amazon.com. At a store, you can also throw these into your cart and nobody is going to look at you like you are a deviant. If anyone does ask you what you are doing, just tell them you are having a big Chicken Stew or some other neighborhood type of event.

  • Rice– First off, buy a 50lb. bag of rice. These contain 504 servings and I don’t know too many people who won’t eat rice. It is simple to cook and stores for years if you keep it cool and dry. This bag at Sam’s costs about $19 now.
  • Beans– Next buy a bag of dry beans. This will check off the Beans part of your Beans, Bullets and Band-Aids list. A good size bag is about $5 and makes 126 servings. Buy two if you think your family would like them.
  • Canned meat– Cans are great for fruits and vegetables and anyone can find something they will eat. For canned meat, I recommend tuna or chicken because it tastes a heck of a lot better than Spam and you can easily mix that into your rice. For the meat you will need approximately 35 cans. Each can has about 3 servings and this will be the most costly, but they last over a year usually and your family probably eats chicken or tuna on a semi-regular basis anyway so restocking this should be simple.
  • Canned Vegetables– you will need about 40 cans of vegetables and again this can be whatever your family will eat. Expect to pay around a dollar each so $40 for veggies to last your family a month.
  • Canned Fruit– again, simple fruits that your family will eat. These can even be fruit cocktail if that is the safest thing. At Costco they have the #10 cans of fruit like pears or apple slices and each of these has 25 servings. 5 of these will cost about $25 and give your family their daily dose of fruit.
  • Oatmeal– Good old-fashioned oatmeal is simple to cook and store. A normal container has 30 servings each so purchase about 4 of these and your family won’t starve for breakfast. At $2 each that is about $8 for breakfast for a month for a family of four. Could you exchange Pop-tarts? Maybe, but I find oatmeal more filling and less likely to be snacked on.
  • Honey– Honey is a miracle food really as it will never go bad if you keep it dry and cool. Honey will last you forever and Sam’s has large containers that hold 108 servings. You can use this in place of sugar to satisfy the sweet tooth. Honey even has medicinal properties and you can use this to add some flavor to your oatmeal for breakfast.
  • Salt– Same as honey, salt will never go bad if you keep it dry and helps the flavor of anything. You can buy a big box of salt for around $1 and that will last your whole family a month easily.
  • Vitamins– I recommend getting some good multivitamins to augment your nutrition in the case of a disaster or emergency. Granted, rice and beans aren’t the best and you won’t be getting as many nutrients from canned fruit and vegetables so the vitamins help to fill in the gaps and keep you healthy. One big bottle costs about $8. You will need to get a kids version too if you have children small enough that they can’t or won’t swallow a big multivitamin.


All of the list above will feed the average family of 4 for right at 30 days and makes a great start to your food preparations. The meat was the most expensive part but the bill comes to around $500 give or take but this will vary by where you live. Should you stop there? No, but this is just a good starting point and you should expand from here. I would keep all of these items in your pantry along with your regular groceries and rotate these to keep the contents fresh.

What Next?

Once you have 30 days of groceries in your pantry I would recommend looking into storing larger quantities in Mylar bags or purchasing freeze-dried foods and bulk grains to augment your supplies. You would also need to plan for basic necessities like hygiene (hello toilet paper!) and different food items.

What else should you have? I would recommend several large candles (very cheap at WalMart) or a propane powered lantern, matches or lighters, batteries for flashlights a good first aid kit, radio and plenty of water. You should also add bullion cubes and spices in to make the meals more palatable. Is this going to be as good as some toaster strudel or 3-egg omelets from your chickens in the morning? No, but this list above will keep your family alive.

Water is another post, but for a month you will need 120 gallons at a minimum. Storing this isn’t as easy as groceries but there are lots of options.

This should get you started on your food preps and you can build on from here. Let me know if you have other ideas I missed.